International Laws

Resolution 13.5 Light Pollution Guidelines for Wildlife and its Annex, Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, COP13 

Date of Adoption: February 2020  

Organization: UNEP 

Summary: Confirms that light pollution refers to artificial light that alters the natural patterns of light and dark in ecosystems;  Encourages Parties, in instances where artificial light is impacting migratory species, to find creative solutions that meet both human requirements and wildlife conservation;  Urges Parties to use the Guidelines to adopt appropriate measures and processes designed to assess if a lighting project is likely to negatively affect wildlife and identify management tools to minimize and mitigate that impact; Recommends that Parties encourage and support scientific research on the impacts of artificial light on wildlife. 

Non-binding recommendations adopted with the CMS framework 

Additional Information: Link to Annex (guidelines consist of specific measures to reduce LP impacts on migratory species protected under the CMS) 


Topics: environmental impacts; migratory species; biodiversity; Bonn convention; CMS; environmental law 

Resolution 8.6: Bats and Light Pollution, Guidelines for consideration  of bats in lighting projects (UNEP/EUROBATS) 

Date of Adoption: 2018 

Organization: UNEP 

Summary: Acknowledged the value of natural light levels for ecological processes; Recommened to take into account that artificial light in general has a negative impact on bats and should be avoided wherever and whenever possible; work to ensure that planning of artificial lighting projects is undertaken in compliance with national legislation regarding bat protection and conservation by implementing appropriate avoidance, mitigation and compensation for habitat losses; ensure that the impacts of artificial light on bats are included in impact assessment procedures.  

Non-binding recommendations to protect the European bats adopted by EUROBATS 

Additional Information: Follow-up Research paper  

Topics: environmental impacts; bats; biodiversity; EUROBATS; environmental law 

UNEP/CMS/COP14/Doc.30.4.4  Light Pollution Guidelines for Wildlife 

Date of Adoption: 10 July 2023 

Summary: Expended the Guidelines adopted during the COP13 in February 2020 

Non-binding recommendations adopted with the CMS framework (expanded) to be reviews at COP14 Samarkand, Uzbekistan, 12 – 17 February 2024 Agenda Item 30.4  

Additional Information: Annex 3 (Guidelines themselves) 

Topics: environmental impacts; migratory species; biodiversity; international level; Bonn convention; CMS; environmental law